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Questions:

  1. (TCO 1) In your own words, briefly summarize the purpose of the analysis phase in SDLC. Explain why it exists and what it contributes to the completion of the system. (Points : 11)
  1. (TCO 6) Explain the concept of polymorphism. Give an example. (Points : 11)
  1. (TCO 1) In your own words, discuss the two methods used to identify improvement opportunities during business process automation (BPA)? Give an example of each of them that is not in the textbook. (Points : 11)
  1. (TCO 2) In your own words, what is the difference between the normal flow area and the sub flow area? What is the alternate flow area?
    Seniors are given a discount on what they buy. They must show their senior card in order to get that discount. You will need to complete two steps where the underlines are. One of them is a step in the Normal Flow area that processes that discount in the subflows area and then returns to the next step in the normal flow area.

    Relationships:
    INCLUDE: Show Senior Card
    Normal Flow of Events: __________________.
    If customer is a senior then _______.
    Print Bill.
    SubFlows:
    Process Discount. .

 

  1. (TCO 3)Define a structural model. Why should a systems analyst create one? Give an example of class cohesion for a class named SUPPLIER for your example that supplies car parts. List some of its attributes and at least two OPERATIONS (methods) that would reside in it. (Points : 11)
  2. (TCO 8) List the logical transitions and states for making a birthday cake from a cake mix, Show at least 3 sequential states and transitions. Show each state and transition using the format below.

    State=
    Transition=

  1. (TCO 6) Use Structured English to write the logic for a method called "CheckOutBook" to check out a book at your college or university library. Use these possible scenarios in your logic:
    Not having a library card or valid library card and getting one to continue on, requesting a book that is not in the library and having to go on a waiting list for the book, and not being allowed to borrow the book due to having overdue borrowed books not yet returned. (Points : 11)
  1. (TCO 7) What are the two types of acceptance tests, and when are they used? What is the difference between the two types of tests? (Points : 11)
  1. (TCO 4) Describe sequence diagrams. Include in your discussion how to read them. What does a curved message call line do? There is an ATHLETE class and a COACH class. A coach wants to get an athlete's statistics using a method named Get_Athlete_Statistics. Explain in which of these two classes this method belongs in. Explain in what direction the message line between these two objects would be drawn when using Get_Athlete_Statistics in a sequence diagram. (Points : 11)
  1. (TCO 5) In a communication diagram, a teacher object and course object are connected with a line. Above the line it states "CourseAttendance()" and it points to the course object from the teacher object. Another message on the line is "UpdateCreditHrsTaught()" and it points from the course object to the teacher object. Explain what this information means. Include in your answer which object is sending the messages to which object and which objects contain the methods. (Points : 11)

Solutions:

1. (TCO 1)  In your own words, briefly summarize the purpose of the analysis phase in SDLC. Explain why it exists and what it contributes to the completion of the system. (Points : 11)

There are several kinds of the Requirements being defined in the requirement phase by the stake holders and sometimes the developers. These requirements’ feasible study is required in order to develop the feasible solution of the current software, we need to analyze each and every requirement and develop a Logical model in order to complete the requirement and analysis phase.

The requirements gathered in the requirement phase of the SDLC are now used in order to create reports, definitions, layout of the software, screen or the GUI, data elements that will be used, workflow of the entire system and sub systems. This phase works as the end of the “logical” model of the application. It works as the input for the Design phase which is the next phase in the SDLC.

Sometimes, if a particular engineering detail has to be specified, this detail will seem within the demand document. This is often the exception and may not be the rule. These exceptions occur for several reasons together with maintaining the consistency with different established systems, availableness of explicit choices, customer's demands, and to ascertain, at the necessity level, a specific design vision. AN example of a low-level detail that may seem within the demand document is that the usage of a specific vendor's wares or the usage of some accepted industry customary, or a constraint on the image size of the appliance.

2. (TCO 6) Explain the concept of polymorphism. Give an example. (Points : 11)

The interfaces are the method by which java implements the inheritance, with the help of interfaces in java we can extends any class and can inherit the extended class functions and variables of the extended class.

Interfaces with polymorphism helps to override the base class method with the method which is has the same name in the extended class.

The interfaces are the method by which  java implements the inheritance, with the help of interfaces in java we can extends any class and can inherit the extended class functions and variables of the extended class.

Example of Polymorphism:

The word polymorphism came from poly: means many hence many forms. As in the respect of Object Oriented Programming the concept of polymorphism stands for the functions to behave with respect to input of the system’s functions. In these different functions which have same names but different arguments are involved. The functions corresponding to the input provided is activated and rest of the functions does not perform any tasks. There are three types of polymorphism in java:

  1. Method overriding
  2. Method overriding (implementation) of the abstract methods
  3. Method overriding (implementation) through the Java interface

e.g.

Given the parent class Person and the child class Student, we add another subclass of Person which is Employee.

public static main( String[] args ) {

Student studentObject = new Student();

Employee employeeObject = new Employee();

Person ref = studentObject; // Person reference points

// to a Student object

// Calling getName() of the Student object instance

String name = ref.getName();}

Now suppose we have a getName method in our

super class Person, and we override this method in

both Student and Employee subclass's

public class Student {

public String getName(){

System.out.println(“Student Name:” + name);

return name;

}

}

public class Employee {

public String getName(){

System.out.println(“Employee Name:” + name);

return name;

}

}

 

3. (TCO 1) In your own words, discuss the two methods used to identify improvement opportunities during business process automation (BPA)? Give an example of each of them that is not in the textbook. (Points : 11)

These 2 techniques target existing business processes within the As-Is system. "Duration Analysis" assesses the time necessities to finish a method. First, the overall time needed to finish a business method is set. Then the method is weakened into individual steps, and also the time needed to finish every step is set. the overall time of all steps is calculated and compared to the overall time of the method. If these totals square measure well completely different (total time of method > total time of method steps), then vital inefficiencies exist, and also the method wants major revision. "Activity-Based Costing" assesses the prices needed to perform a method. during this technique, the price {of every|of every} major method or each step during a business perform is measured. the foremost expensive processes square measure then the targets of the event team's improvement efforts. though simple in construct, this system is complicated in apply owing to the issue of determinant the indirect prices to use to the business process(es). Incorrectly assigned indirect prices could bias the results of the analysis.

4. (TCO 2) In your own words, what is the difference between the normal flow area and the sub flow area? What is the alternate flow area?

Normal flow area is the main area of the program which works along the system and passes all the system different decision boxes in the straight manner. The sub flow area is the area in which the process which has special purpose to be executed in case of the special condition being true. The sub flow area are usually kept in various different loops and conditional parameters.

For example:

INCLUDE: ShowSeniorCard

Normal Flow of the events: (normal flow)

Customer Reaches the desk and shows the Library card

If the Customer is Senior then:

Call sub: Discount

Print Bill

Discount: (sub flow)

Process the discount statements in this sub flow.

Alternate Flow is the flow when if there is another condition apart from the normal flow then the alternate flow comes into the picture.

INCLUDE: ShowSeniorCard

Normal Flow of the events: (normal flow)

Customer Reaches the desk and shows the Library card

If the Customer is Senior then:

Call sub: Discount

Else

Call: No Discount (alternate Flow)

Print Bill

Discount: (sub flow)

Process the discount statements in this sub flow.

 

5. (TCO 3)Define a structural model. Why should a systems analyst create one? Give an example of class cohesion for a class named SUPPLIER for your example that supplies car parts. List some of its attributes and at least two OPERATIONS (methods) that would reside in it. (Points : 11)

The structural model defines the static structure of the software system. The activity model defines exactly the manner the software system behaves in terms of the inputs it receives and also the outputs it produces. The structural model springs at first from the necessities eventualities victimization some general derivation heuristics. A heuristic could be a "rule of thumb" that defines generally terms a way to perform some task. The heuristics for model derivation outline however model objects, operations, and attributes area unit derived from the user-centered needs eventualities. An object is that the formal definition of a user-visible piece of information. An operation is that the formal definition of an action performed by the software system victimization the objects. Above all, operations take objects as inputs and produces objects as outputs. A model attribute could be a general characteristic of the software system. Once model objects, operations, and attributes area unit derived from eventualities, they're refined additional supported the elaborated situation narrative. This a part of the method terribly generally involves a big quantity of iteration with the Analyze step, that take in high-level terms..

Class SUPPLIER

{

int car_part_id;

int car_part_name;

public:

int getCarPartName(int);

void BookCarPart(int);

}

 

6. (TCO 8) List the logical transitions and states for making a birthday cake from a cake mix. Show at least 3 sequential states and transitions. Show each state and transition using the format below.

State=    Powder Flour mixing with water and Egg
Transition= Semi Solid Flour

State= Semi-Solid Flour mixed with Dry fruits and Flavor and Baked

Transition= Baked Cake in brown Color

 

State= Brown Color decorated with Cream and Cake components

Transition= Cake Ready and done.

 

7. (TCO 6) Use Structured English to write the logic for a method called "CheckOutBook" to check out a book at your college or university library. Use these possible scenarios in your logic:

Not having a library card or valid library card and getting one to continue on, requesting a book that is not in the library and having to go on a waiting list for the book, and not being allowed to borrow the book due to having overdue borrowed books not yet returned. (Points : 11)

Method CheckOutBook()

Member goes to the desk with the books he needs to be issued:

If Library card is valid:

Library card limit is available:

Request for the book for the issue.

                                                If book available:

                                                    Book is issued

                                                Else

Book is on waiting list

Else

Over the limit cannot issue book

Else

Invalid card please give the proper card

8. (TCO 7)  What are the two types of acceptance tests, and when are they used? What is the difference between the two types of tests? (Points : 11)

There are 2 sorts of Acceptance testing varieties one is Alpha Testing and another one is Beta Testing. Alpha testing is achieved at the increasing organization’s site. Beta testing, or field testing, is done by people at their own situations. Each is done by possible clienteles, not the designers of the software.

Like game demos and prereleases are tested by the prerelease testers or beta testers of the system. These testers use the software in their own conditions and own environment and report and error occurring in order to the system process or the normal flow of the system.

The Alpha testing is more so the testing being done at the developer site itself, in which the testing is done under standard procedure and we can even say that the testing is sometime bias by tester or developer in order to push the software to the market.

Major difference between the two is the alpha testing is done at the developer’s site itself and the beta testing is done at the potential customer’s site and environment.

 

9. (TCO 4) Describe sequence diagrams. Include in your discussion how to read them. What does a curved message call line do? There is an ATHLETE class and a COACH class. A coach wants to get an athlete's statistics using a method named Get_Athlete_Statistics. Explain in which of these two classes this method belongs in. Explain in what direction the message line between these two objects would be drawn when using Get_Athlete_Statistics in a sequence diagram. (Points : 11)

A sequence diagram in an exceedingly Unified Modeling Language (UML) could be a Sequence interaction diagram that shows however processes function with each other and in what order. It’s a build of a Message Sequence Chart. Diagram demonstrations object interactions organized in time sequence. It portrays the objects and categories concerned within the state of affairs and therefore the order of messages changed between the objects required to hold out the practicality of the state of affairs. Sequence diagrams generally (but not always), area unit related to use case realizations within the Logical read of the system beneath development.

If the support is that of associate object, it establishes a job. Note that exploit the instance name blank will represent nameless and unidentified instances.

In order to show interaction, messages are used. These are horizontal arrows with the message name written higher than them. Solid arrows with full heads area unit synchronous calls, solid arrows with stick heads area unit asynchronous calls and dotted arrows with stick heads are return messages.

The Get_Athlete_Statitics method would be in the ATHLETE Class as it will return the property of the athlete and the message direction would be from Coach to Athlete for the message and Athlete to Coach for the response message.

 

10. (TCO 5) In a communication diagram, a teacher object and course object are connected with a line. Above the line it states "CourseAttendance()" and it points to the course object from the teacher object. Another message on the line is "UpdateCreditHrsTaught()" and it points from the course object to the teacher object. Explain what this information means. Include in your answer which object is sending the messages to which object and which objects contain the methods.   (Points : 11)

 

This information means that the course class objects being used by the teacher’s class object for the accessing the CourseAttendance() method that would have been defined in the Course Class. (here the teacher object sending message to course object)

The message on the line is UpdateCreditHrsTaught() which would have been certainly being defined in the Teacher’s class is accessed by the teacher class object. (here course bject sending message to teacher object)

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